Sponsored Links
Welcome, Guest
You have to register before you can post on our site.



Search Forums

(Advanced Search)

Forum Statistics
» Members: 6,411
» Latest member: equxorexazayo
» Forum threads: 445
» Forum posts: 810

Full Statistics

Online Users
There are currently 14 online users.
» 0 Member(s) | 14 Guest(s)

Latest Threads
Elevate Your Look with Th...
Forum: Others
Last Post: maham
07-04-2024, 04:15 PM
» Replies: 0
» Views: 31
benefits of yoga
Forum: Health
Last Post: maham
06-20-2024, 09:49 PM
» Replies: 0
» Views: 149
beauty in art
Forum: Arts & Culture
Last Post: maham
06-20-2024, 09:46 PM
» Replies: 0
» Views: 142
Family is important
Forum: Family, Home, House
Last Post: maham
06-20-2024, 09:43 PM
» Replies: 0
» Views: 53
Is College Really Worth I...
Forum: Education
Last Post: maham
06-20-2024, 09:40 PM
» Replies: 0
» Views: 61
Dogs are loyal
Forum: Animals
Last Post: maham
06-20-2024, 09:39 PM
» Replies: 0
» Views: 57
benefits of yoga
Forum: Health
Last Post: maham
06-20-2024, 09:37 PM
» Replies: 0
» Views: 97
Elevate Your Business wit...
Forum: Buying, Selling, Trade
Last Post: Madiha Imran
05-26-2024, 02:16 PM
» Replies: 0
» Views: 239
Experience Culinary Excel...
Forum: Cooking & Foods
Last Post: hannahsalvia
05-08-2024, 05:41 PM
» Replies: 0
» Views: 217
Are you In The Search Of ...
Forum: Cooking & Foods
Last Post: hannahsalvia
05-08-2024, 05:40 PM
» Replies: 0
» Views: 155

  Top 7 Law book every lawyer should read in 2021
Posted by: admin - 02-06-2024, 02:34 PM - Forum: Law - No Replies

Being in the legal profession means reading more than just your law books.
Here is a list of the books that experts opine that every law student must-read.

Print this item

  Top 5 Lawyer Movies
Posted by: admin - 02-06-2024, 02:34 PM - Forum: Movies & TV - No Replies

5. The Devil's Advocate (1997)
4. A Few Good Men (1992)
3. Philadelphia (1993)
2. Witness for the Prosecution (1957)
1. To Kill a Mockingbird (1962)

Print this item

  Law of Indonesia
Posted by: Riri - 02-06-2024, 01:38 PM - Forum: Your Country/City/Local Language - No Replies

Law of Indonesia is based on a civil law system, intermixed with local customary law and Dutch law. Before the Dutch presence and colonization began in the sixteenth century, indigenous kingdoms ruled the archipelago independently with their own custom laws, known as adat (unwritten, traditional rules still observed in the Indonesian society).

Dutch presence and subsequent colonization of Indonesia for over three centuries has left a legacy of Dutch colonial law, largely in the Indonesian civil code and criminal code. Following independence in 1945, Indonesia began to form its own modern Indonesian law, modifying existing precepts. Dutch legal decisions maintain some authority in Indonesia through application of the concordance principle. The three components of adat, or customary law; Dutch law; and modern Indonesian law co-exist in the current law of Indonesia.

Hierarchy of legislations

Indonesian legislation comes in different forms. The following official hierarchy of Indonesian legislations (from top to bottom) is enumerated in Article 7 of Law No. 12/2011:

1. The 1945 Constitution (Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 1945 or UUD 1945);
2. Resolutions of the People's Consultative Assembly;
3. Acts (Undang-Undang or UU, also translated as Laws) and government regulations in-lieu-of Acts;
4. Government regulations;
5. Presidential regulations;
6. Provincial ordinances; and
7. City ordinances and Regency ordinances.

In practice, there are also presidential decrees, presidential instructions, ministerial regulations, ministerial decrees and circulars, all of which are legally binding and sometimes in conflict with each other.

Once a legislation is promulgated, a State Gazette of the Republic of Indonesia is issued by State Secretariat. Sometimes elucidation of the legislation or attached documents like charts accompany the main legislation in a State Gazette Supplement. The Government also produces State Reports to publish government and public notices as well as other ministerial regulations and decrees.

Source of law:

1. Written laws

As Indonesia is considered to prescribe to civil law system, the legal system is heavily reliant on statutory laws. Generally, all legislations explicitly mentioned in the official hierarchy of Indonesian laws (the hierarchy of legislations mentioned above) is legally binding and applicable as a source of law. Other legally binding legislations not included in the official hierarchy may be mentioned in the attached elucidation of the 2011 Lawmaking Act. Treaties ratified into an act also serve as a source of law.

Under Article 2 of the transitory provisions in the Constitution, all legislations and institutions made under Dutch colonial law will remain in place and in force, until new legislations and institutions are made to replace them. Legislations such as the Algemene Bepalingen are still in force (albeit with articles repealed with new legislations), and institutions such as the civil registry still operates to this day.

2. Unwritten laws
The term "Unwritten Laws" refers to laws not promulgated through official authority. There are concerns that Indonesian legal system grew increasingly positivist and overregulated, pushing the unwritten laws to irrelevance.c

Indonesian judiciary system has its constitutional root in the 1945 Constitution and further regulated in the implementing laws and regulations. The supreme court is highest judicial institution in Indonesia and constitutes the apex of this judicial organs vested with judicial power, as expressly stated in Article 24 of the 1945 Constitution.

Article 24 Indonesia Constitution

(1) The judicial power shall be independent and shall posses the power to organize the judicature in order to enforce law and justice.

(2) The judicial power shall be implemented by a Supreme Court and judicial bodies underneath it in the form of public courts, religious affairs courts, military tribunals, and state administrative courts, and by a Constitutional Court.

(3) Other institutions whose functions have a relation with the judicial power shall be regulated by law.

The elucidation (explanation note) to this article reads:

The judicial power is an independent power, which means free from the interference of the Government. In this connection the status of judges must be guaranteed by Law.

Articles 24 A (3) of the amended Constitution:

Candidates for Supreme Justice is recommended by a Judicial Commission to the Parliament for approval and then decreed by the President.

Prior to the third amendment of the Constitution in 2003. Supreme Court was the sole state institution in judicative branch. After the amendment, the structure of judicative power has undergone significant change. To date, there are three institutions sits under the judicative branch namely, the Supreme Court. Constitutional Court and Judicial Commission.

The Supreme Court remains as the apex of judicial power over the existing four court jurisdictions, namely, the general court (which hear and decide on common civil and criminal cases), Religious Court, State Administrative Court and Military Court.

Prior to the Law Number 35 of 1999, the administration of the court system was handled and supervised by the executive. This included the transfer, the promotion, and the remuneration of the judges. This system had been generally criticized of its potential abuse, to the independence of judiciary. By Law Number 35 of 1999 was replaced by Law Number 4 of 2004 on Judicial Power which further strengthen the independence of the judiciary.

The notion of Constitution to protect citizens from arbitrary acts is implemented by other subordinate regulations. Several universal human rights principles were adopted in the Law No. 4 of 2004 on Judicial Power, to guarantee judicial independence, fair and prompt trial, as well as in order to protect the rights of the accused and victims.

source: wikipedia and mahkamahagung.co.id

Print this item

  Politics of Indonesia
Posted by: Riri - 02-06-2024, 12:56 PM - Forum: Your Country/City/Local Language - No Replies

Indonesia is a constitutional democracy. After the fall of president Suharto's prolonged authoritarian New Order regime in 1998 various constitutional amendments were made in order to reduce effective power of the country's executive branch, thus making a new dictatorship almost impossible.

Indonesia is now characterized by popular sovereignty manifested in parliamentary and presidential elections every five years. Starting from the fall of Suharto's New Order, which marked the beginning of the Reformation period, every election in Indonesia is regarded to be free and fair. However, the nation is not free from corruption, nepotism, collusion as well as money-politics through which power or political positions can be bought. For example, the poorer segments of Indonesian society are 'encouraged' to vote for a specific presidential candidate on election day by being handed some small money at the ballot box. Such strategies persist and are used by all involved sides (which - in some respects - makes it a fair battle and thus different from the New Order era).

We consider such issues to be part of Indonesia's growing process towards becoming a full democracy (currently - based on the Economist Intelligence Unit's Democracy Index - the nation is still regarded as a flawed democracy). It needs to be emphasized here that Indonesia constitutes a young democracy and therefore experiences growing pains.

Political conditions are important for those who seek to invest or engage in business relations with Indonesia. In this section we present an overview of Indonesia's current political composition as well as overviews of the key chapters in the country's political history.

source: Indonesia Investments

Print this item

  List of richest lawyers / advocates
Posted by: Riri - 02-06-2024, 12:03 PM - Forum: Law - Replies (2)

Print this item

  List of best lawyers / advocates
Posted by: Riri - 02-06-2024, 11:07 AM - Forum: Law - No Replies

One who change whole system he is best lawyer.
I have a law degree, hopefully one day I can be part of the best lawyers in the world.

1. Jerry Brown:

The current Governor of California is a former Yale Law School graduate from the batch of 1964. Brown has an odd record to his name - he is one of the youngest as well as oldest person to govern the state of California. He has been praised in his writ-up for successfully eliminating a $26 billion deficit.

2. Ertharin Cousin:

The the twelfth Executive Director of the United Nations World Food Programmer is a former law graduate from the University of Georgia School of Law. Cousin, has often been called "a Chicagoan who helps feed the world" for her community work in the lower income neighborhood of Chicago.

3. Hillary Clinton:

The 67th Secretary of State and a forerunner in the race of being The first woman president of the United States of America is a former Yale graduate. If she does go on to be President, she will not only be the most inflvential lawyer but also one of the most powerful person in the World.

4. Kirsten Gillibrand:

Senator Gillibrand is a former gradvate of UCLA School of Law. Kirsten started her career as an associate at the Manhattan-based office of Davis Polk & Wardwell in 1991. She then went on to serve as a law clerk to Judge Roger Miner on the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit in Albany.

5. Eric Holder:

The former Attorney General of the United States was honored by the Time 100 for his exceptional service as a lawyer. He is a former Columbia school of law gradvate, and has worked in all the sectors of the law - from judgeship at D.C. Superior Court to working for a big law firm at Covington & Burling.

6. Xi Jinping:

Mr. Xi is the current President of the People's Republic of China. He received his LL.D. degree from the prestigious Tsinghva University. His leadership skills and his work in the development of China has been hailed as - America's greatest challenge and opportunity of the 21st century.

7. Megyn Kelly:

Megyn has worked at some of the biggest law firms in the World. She has worked as an associate at Bickel & Brewer before going on to work for Jones day. She is a former Albany Law School gradvate and now has her own show on Fox News - "The Kelly File". Fun fact, Megyn is a member of a sorority group called - Kappa Alpha Theta

Print this item

  Indonesian culture is interesting to you
Posted by: Riri - 02-05-2024, 04:54 AM - Forum: Your Country/City/Local Language - No Replies

my favorite indonesia culture:

Wayang, also known as wajang (Javanese), is a traditional form of puppet theatre play originating from the Indonesian island of Java.

Attached Files Thumbnail(s)
Print this item

  What is your country/city?
Posted by: admin - 02-04-2024, 10:59 AM - Forum: Your Country/City/Local Language - No Replies

Where are you now & is it good country/city?

Print this item

  Where to hire top rated writing services online?
Posted by: albertsilva - 01-03-2024, 11:06 AM - Forum: Education - Replies (1)

Multiple companies are giving online writing services. I think the Concepts will probably be better understood by students who have more time to study outside of school than by those who only use their school time but academic writing Ireland give students and parents the independence and time to focus on issues they may be struggling with.

Print this item

  Can any company develop me a Quantum Application?
Posted by: saraclover - 12-13-2023, 09:02 PM - Forum: Buying, Selling, Trade - No Replies

Working with Celect Studios on Quantum application development solutions was an extraordinary experience. Their team's deep understanding of quantum computing set a new standard for innovation in the field. They skillfully navigated the complexities of quantum algorithms and integrated them seamlessly into practical applications. The solutions provided by Celect Studios were not only technically proficient but also highly innovative, demonstrating their ability to leverage quantum technology effectively. Their proactive approach to problem-solving and commitment to staying ahead of technological advancements resulted in a product that was both cutting-edge and reliable. Overall, Celect Studios is a frontrunner in quantum application development, offering unmatched expertise and visionary solutions.

Print this item